The Archimedes Palimpsest and Lenox Laser

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Lenox Laser, as mentioned in the previous post, is involved and relevant to current events such as the recent Nobel Prize in Physics and the James Webb Telescope.

Archimedes Palimpsest
Photo from the Walter’s Flickr site, part of the Lost and Found exhibit about the Archimedes Palimpsest

Another example is the Archimedes Palimpsest at Baltimore’s Walters Art Museum. It is on a special exhibit right now until January 2012, and, believes it or not, Lenox Laser was involved with this as well! Lenox Laser was involved in the key science that allowed them to see past the monk’s writings and read Archimedes’ instead. SLAC was the organization that was heading up the research to better read the obscured text, and they contacted Lenox Laser for the special tungsten part.

From our earlier blog post about the Archimedes Palimpsest from 2006- it explains Lenox Laser’s key role.

The Archimedes Palimpsest writings lingered unseen for centuries, seemingly purged from the documents forever, until Professor Heiburg began to review small scrawls beneath the visible text. At SLAC, a revolutionary modern analysis of the writing medium has been made – revealing they do contain historically important information left behind by Archimedes, Hidden from the naked eye.When confronted with an engineering challenge involving their Synchrotron X-Ray source, SLAC issued a request to Lenox Laser to produce microscopic laser-drilled holes in thin Tungsten film. These small apertures would prove critical to the team’s success in uncovering the Palimpsest’s “hidden treasure”.

Here is the website about the ancient text: www.archimedespalimpsest.org
and the Walters Art Museum: thewalters.org

Lenox Laser Scholarship- “Evaluation of UV LEDs for detection of atmospheric NO2 by photolysis- chemiluminescence”

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Lockheed WP-3D Orion. From NOAA website
Lockheed WP-3D Orion. From NOAA website

 

Evaluation of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for detection of atmospheric NO2 by photolysis- chemiluminescence
by Ilana B Pollack, Brian M Lerner, and Thomas B Ryerson

This article was accepted to Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry in February of this year, and it details an atmospheric study done in May and June of 2010. Lenox Laser made a total of 3 parts for their studies of different LED detections systems of NO2. For some key background information if one is not familiar, I highly recommend reading this article first:
Flourescence detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using a blue light-emitting diode as an excitation source by Yutaka Matsumi et al. It is much more readable and understandable.

Basically, detection of NO2 in the atmosphere relates to the ozone levels in the atmosphere. Thus, scientists of the field are interested in better, more accurate, and cheaper ways to measure NO2. One of the most recent trends to do so is to use commercially available UV-LEDs in their systems. The systems already often use a UV light source of some kind because in the chemistry of NO2 and related molecules, they will emit light in the process. Atmospheric scientists use this property, called chemiluminescence, to measure the NO2 molecules. Chemiluminescence detection is called P-CL.

In this article, the authors tested 3 UV-LEDs against each other in the P-CL system as shown in the diagram below:

Fig 1 from the paper- schematic of instrumental configuration
Fig 1 from the paper- schematic of instrumental configuration

I recommend reading the article itself to fully understand the diagram and the process. However, this is where Lenox Laser and our calibrated orifices come in. The red section where it says 700um orifice is where our first orifice was used. This is the bypass inlet, and was used to set the sample flow rate and cell pressure for the entire system. They found that the Nichia LEDs were the best overall.

So for the second part of the test, they took the Nichia LEDs on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft with the P-CL for “on the job” training in the CalNex study. They replaced the more expensive and complicated mass flow controllers were replaced with our critical orifices and mass flow meters. In the diagram above the two places are indicated by arrows in the blue and black section. Replacing the parts in the system did improve the quality, and, as stated in the conclusion, they “eliminate mechanical components with complex flow paths that degrade time response. Replacing mass flow controllers with critical orifices and mass flow meters further simplifies the sample flow path in these laboratory test.”

The NOAA WP-3D aircraft is the plane that flies into hurricanes to monitor and gather information. It took part in CalNex – a study by several universities and institutions of air quality and climate change on the west coast. Our parts were used on board and tested with the UV-LED systems during the study. They even went with the plane as it was briefly diverted from the study to the Gulf of Mexico during the oil spill.

So in conclusion, this research paper incorporates optics, chemistry, and biology with flow technologies, atmospheric studies, and research planes all together, with Lenox Laser parts in the middle of it all!

As always, check out our main website www.lenoxlaser.com to see more of what we do, as well as the rest of this blog. If you have any questions or input, email me at archives@lenoxlaser.com

Laser-Drilling Applications Google Scholar Results

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laserDrill2

We are doing a lot this year in anticipation of our 2nd International Light Seminar in October as well as in commemoration of this our 30th anniversary. 

We decided that we wanted to get a better handle on where our parts have gone and how they are being used. I have already gone through Lenox Laser in space with NASA here. Now I want to take it back down to Earth.

In order see where our parts have been used and cited, I went to Google Scholar
and searched for “Lenox Laser.” Here is the link to the results: Google Scholar. What I found was fascinating.
scholarLogo

While not all of the results are accessible, those that are provide key insights into laser-drilling applications. The three broad categories are articles, patents, and theses and dissertations. In my research, I have broken them down accordingly and ordered them chronologically by publication year. The following graph illustrates the results:

CHART for blog

Here one can see a snapshot of Lenox Laser and how we are increasingly in demand. This also illustrates how laser-drilling and nano technologies have been growing.

I, and a few others, will be going through all of the articles we can and blog about them. We will give a summary of the article and the field that it relates to. However the key will be what part or parts we made and the applications.

We are working on improving our Newsroom on our company website. It will have a page where all the articles in which we are cited will be listed, as well as direct links. That will be up and running very soon.

So for now, please peruse through the Google Scholar results. You can even add keywords to specify your search, such as aperture or orifice. And, as always, please visit our website for more about Lenox Laser’s products and services.

Laser Technology and Its Applications in Today’s Market

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Some of the most innovative companies in the DelMarVa area came together at Lenox Laser for a recent conference discussing the theme “Micro-to-Nano” technologies. The conference included talks on a range of topics, including Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical research, Rapid Prototyping, and Laser Drilling.

John Bishop of Norsam Technologies addressed conference attendees on the topic of Ion Beam drilling. Visitors from Northrop Grumman and other local corporations reviewed digital presentations on Nanostructures, MEMS manufacturing, Advances in Laser Drilling, and Microlensing.

The wide overview of current techniques and new ideas provided an excellent forum for group discussions as innovators met manufacturers in this unique scientific environment. Lenox Laser plans to host future collaborative conferences focusing on subjects such as Rapid Prototyping and Micro-fluidics.

Ruling Out Multi-Order Interference in Quantum Mechanics / Mfgr By Lenox Laser

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Read this article at Science Magazine

Abstract:

Ruling Out Multi-Order Interference in Quantum Mechanics

Urbasi Sinha,1,* Christophe Couteau,1,2 Thomas Jennewein,1 Raymond Laflamme,1,3 Gregor Weihs1,4,*

Quantum mechanics and gravitation are two pillars of modern physics. Despite their success in describing the physical world around us, they seem to be incompatible theories. There are suggestions that one of these theories must be generalized to achieve unification. For example, Born’s rule—one of the axioms of quantum mechanics—could be violated. Born’s rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double-slit diffraction experiment, occurs from pairs of paths. A generalized version of quantum mechanics might allow multipath (i.e., higher-order) interference, thus leading to a deviation from the theory. We performed a three-slit experiment with photons and bounded the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10–2 of the expected two-path interference,thus ruling out third- and higher-order interference and providinga bound on the accuracy of Born’s rule. Our experimentis consistent with the postulate both in semiclassical and quantumregimes.

1 Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.
2 Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10 000 Troyes, France.
3 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Canada.
4 Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Process Development

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spark
The personal goal and commitment of each member of the Lenox Laser Corporation’s engineering team is to provide each customer with reliable and robust products made to specified custom requirements and conditions, such as, high energy light beam densities, aggressive chemical and biological environments, mechanical stresses and vibrations, aerospace and underwater uses, etc.
We have a wide range of tools at our disposal. Our lasers range from CW to picoseconds in pulse widths; from far IR to hard UV wavelengths; from Joules to micro-Joules in laser beam energy. We can drill to a specified gas or liquid flow or light intensity. We have a fully equipped machine shop and chemical etching capabilities. Our experienced staff can combine some or all of those capabilities in a multi-step process where a single technique application becomes impractical or impossible. In each unique case, the choice of product materials and manufacturing processes are specific and may affect future product performance.
Both our production and engineering teams are readily available to help customers to consider those specifics in the original product design. We may suggest developing and redesigning a product to create both a feasible and cost effective project.
Lenox Laser has a distinguished history of successful medical product development under the auspices of NIH grants enabling us to introduce innovative products to a highly competitive global market. We have pioneered and have become an industry standard in a metrology associated with holes drilled for leak detection in the medical, pharmaceutical, automobile and food industries.

Young’s Double Slit

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The experiment named for Thomas Young’s classic proof of the wave theory of light in 1803. While Young’s original experiment used sunlight and calculated the average wavelength to be 550nm, today using monochromatic and coherent light one can calculate wavelength with the following formula:

nλ = xd/L

 

λ is the wavelength of the light
d is the separation of the slits
n is the order of maximum observed ( for first order n=1)
x is the distance between the bands of light and the central maximum
L is the distance from the slits to the screen center point.

Young’s Double Slits are manufactured by the Lenox Laser Corporation’s proprietary technology that gives a very sharp edge to every slit that makes the geometries and areas of each slit equal (within specifications). This guarantees a very high contrast of diffraction patterns and low flux variations through each of the slits providing good metrology.

In application, these slits may be used to demonstrate Young’s Interference Fringes, Michelson’s Stellar Interferometer (for measuring the separation between double stars) or other applications requiring measurement of the separation between point sources. Go to the Young’s Double Slit Page to activate an interactive applet that will show Young interferences resulting from the interaction of a certain number of waves.

For more information call 1-800-49HOLES or 410-592-3106 or email quotes@lenoxlaser.com

Lenox Laser Helps Uncover Archimedes Palimpsest.

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A spatial filter is an optical device which uses the principles of Fourier Optics to alter the structure of a beam of coherent light. Spatial filtering is commonly used to remove aberrations in the beam due to imperfect, dirty or damaged optics, or due to variations in the laser gain medium itself. This can be used to produce a laser beam containing only a single transverse mode of the laser’s optical resonator.

In spatial filtering, a lens is used to focus the beam. A beam that is not a perfect plane wave will not focus to a single spot, but rather will produce a pattern of light and dark regions in the focal plane. It can be shown that this two-dimensional pattern is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the initial beam’s transverse intensity distribution. Light in the very center of the transform pattern corresponds to a perfect, wide plane wave. Other light corresponds to “structure” in the beam, with light further from the central spot corresponding to structure with higher spatial frequency. A pattern with very fine details will produce light very far from the transform plane’s central spot. This pattern is called an Airy pattern.

By altering the distribution of light in the transform plane and using another lens to reform the collimated beam, the structure of the beam can be altered. The most common way of doing this is to place an aperture in the beam that allows the desired light to pass, while blocking light that corresponds to undesired structure in the beam. In particular, a small circular aperture or “pinhole” that passes only the central bright spot can remove nearly all fine structure from the beam, producing a smooth transverse intensity profile. With good optics and precisely measured pinhole, one could even approximate a plane wave.

The diameter of an aperture is chosen based on the focal length of the lens, the diameter and quality of the input beam, and its wavelength. If the hole is too small, the beam quality is greatly improved but the power is greatly reduced. If the hole is too large, the beam quality may not be improved as much as desired.

The size of the aperture that can be used also depends on the size and quality of the optics. To use a very small pinhole, one must use a focusing lens with a low f-number, and ideally the lens should not add significant aberrations to the beam.

A commonly used spatial filter configuration is to use a microscope objective lens for focusing the beam, and an aperture made preferably by laser drilling a small, precise, hole in a piece of metal foil. Such apertures made in a variety of sizes and materials are readily available commercially from companies, such as, Lenox Laser, Inc., the leader in microhole technology.

Lenox Laser Helps Uncover Archimedes Palimpsest.

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Intensive efforts are underway to uncover centuries-old hidden writings of Greek mathematician Archimedes. Researches at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are utilizing advanced X-ray technology to uncover writings of Archimedes once completely unknown. Discovered in 1906 by then-Professor J.L. Heiberg of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, the hidden text appeared within historical monastic prayer documents. The ancient practice of washing text away to make reuse material is called “Palimpsesting”.

The Archimedes Palimpsest writings lingered unseen for centuries, seemingly purged from the documents forever, until Professor Heiburg began to review small scrawls beneath the visible text. At SLAC, a revolutionary modern analysis of the writing medium has been made – revealing they do contain historically important information left behind by Archimedes, Hidden from the naked eye.

When confronted with an engineering challenge involving their Synchrotron X-Ray source, SLAC issued a request to Lenox Laser to produce microscopic laser-drilled holes in thin Tungsten film. These small apertures would prove critical to the team’s success in uncovering the Palimpsest’s “hidden treasure”.

Using a new X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, the team at SLAC, along with other collaborations, revealed writings involving mathematics and science once hidden for more than 1000 years. Conservation scientists are referencing this experiment to encourage similar new endeavors. Could many more documents in historical collections today hold hidden texts currently unknown? Time and Technology will tell.

The SLAC experiment has proven successful, and the story was featured on several prominent news and documentary programs. The Archimedes Palimpsest rests at the Walter’s Art Gallery in Baltimore, MD – continuously monitored by preservation professionals, and studied regularly by scholars from around the world.

Archimedes Ancient Writings Revealed

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archimedes_size2

Lenox Laser helped developed precision drilled apertures for SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) to read Archimedes ancient writings. Utilizing x-ray technology they were able to detect trace amounts of iron used in the original ink. Lenox Laser’s apertures allowed them to do this without the x-rays damaging the pages.

Intensive efforts are underway to uncover centuries-old hidden writings of Greek mathematician Archimedes. Researches at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are utilizing advanced X-ray technology to uncover writings of Archimedes once completely unknown.

Discovered in 1906 by then-Professor J.L. Heiberg of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, the hidden text appeared within historical monastic prayer documents. The ancient practice of washing text away to make way for new writings is referred to as “Palimpsesting”.

Image2

The Archimedes Palimpsest writings lingered unseen for centuries, seemingly purged from the documents forever, until Professor Heiburg began to review small scrawls beneath the visible text. At SLAC, a revolutionary modern analysis of the writing medium has been made – revealing they do contain historically important information left behind by Archimedes, Hidden from the naked eye.
When confronted with an engineering challenge involving their Synchrotron X-Ray source, SLAC issued a request to Lenox Laser to produce microscopic laser-drilled holes in thin Tungsten film. These small apertures would prove critical to the team’s success in uncovering the Palimpsest’s “hidden treasure”.

Using a new X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, the team at SLAC, along with other collaborator, revealed writings involving mathematics and science once hidden for more than 1000 years. Conservation scientists are referencing this experiment to encourage similar new endeavors. Could many more documents in historical collections today hold hidden texts currently unknown? Time and Technology will tell.

The SLAC experiment has proven successful, and the story was featured on several prominent news and documentary programs. The Archimedes Palimpsest rests at the Walter’s Art Gallery in Baltimore, MD – continuously monitored by preservation professionals, and studied regularly by scholars from around the world.

View the ongoing project at archimedespalimpsest.org

exploratorium.com

View SLACs Work

 

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